There is a gender gap in malnutrition...
with women accounting for the majority of underweight and overweight adults in the world. 244 million women are underweight, compared to 216 million men, and 375 million women are obese, compared to 266 million men. Further, 30% of women and 40% of pregnant women in the world suffer from iron-deficiency anemia. Nutritional deficiencies kill more women than men, and high body mass index also causes more deaths among women (2.3 million) than men (2.2 million), according to the Global Burden of Disease. Malnutrition among women aged 15 to 49 is particularly concerning because of its impact on women's and children's health, as well as on labor force and on educational performance. Women who are malnourished (underweight or obese, and/or micronutrient deficient) are more likely to experience birth complications, including babies born preterm, with low birth weight, and/or congenital defects, and are at an increased risk of maternal and newborn death. This burden of death, combined with lower educational and job performance, costs governments up to 11% of Gross National Product (GNP), according to the Global Nutrition Report.
More than half of undernutrition-related deaths among young women occur in just five countries - India, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, and Mali. Similarly, more than half of all obesity-related deaths among young women occur in a handful of countries, including India, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, the USA, and Brazil. Note India and Pakistan appear on both lists, indicating that they are struggling with a "double burden" of female malnutrition. For example, in India, an estimated 4,200 young women die from nutritional deficiencies, while 35,000 die from obesity-related causes. In Pakistan, an estimated 970 young women die from undernutrition, while 9,400 die from obesity-related causes. As deaths from undernutrition fall, deaths from obesity are rising in many countries.
National nutrition strategies should prioritize improving the nutritional status of women of reproductive age, and strengthen women’s capacity to provide nutritious diets for themselves, their children, and their families. Specifically, countries should set targets for halving underweight and anemia among women 15 to 49 years by 2020, and for eliminating both by 2030. To achieve these goals, nutrition stakeholders should work together to simultaneously increase the supply of foods and supplements designed to meet the nutritional needs of younger women, with a special focus on iron-folic acid supplements and iron-fortified staple foods, and encourage their use by educating women, by providing cash transfers conditional on their use, by making cash conditional on other healthy behaviors (e.g. childhood vaccination, prenatal care visits), and by making them available in the places women frequent daily (e.g. schools, workplaces, and shops). Governments should develop plans for close obesity gender gaps and halve obesity rates among women 15-49 by 2030.
The United Nations, its agencies, and partners should support this focus on the nutritional status of women 15 to 49 years as the key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of ending child malnutrition, addressing the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant, and breastfeeding women, and reducing by one third deaths from non-communicable diseases. The UN should encourage all development partners with a stake in meeting these goals to increase investments in high-impact interventions with a proven track record of improving women’s own nutritional status, and their capacity to reduce childhood malnutrition. New investments should target the largest populations of malnourished women. Full engagement of the private sector is required to achieve these goals as food is a private market transaction in all but the most fragile of humanitarian settings. The UN should also lead the charge in a data revolution to fill the considerable gaps in our knowledge of the nutritional status of women of reproductive age at national and sub-national levels.