Motherhood + Public Power Index 2017

Motherhood and public power in the USA, China, and Russia

The quality of leadership in the three most powerful nations in the world matters. Not only do the USA, China, and Russia govern 1.8 billion of the world’s seven billion citizens, but their economic power and influence shape global growth and, increasingly human development, in many of the world’s nations.

With a new set of ambitious Global Goals to achieve by 2030, including ending poverty, preventable child deaths, and malnutrition, the world will need its very best talent at the helm of governments, businesses, universities and civil society.

In this context, the results of the 2017 Motherhood+Public Power Index can only be described as deeply disturbing. At this point in time, just 32 of the 480 most powerful positions in the USA, China, and Russia are held by leaders who are also mothers. That’s a rate of 7%.

Mothers do slightly better in the USA, holding 20 of the top 160 jobs (12.5%), compared to mothers in China, who hold just seven of the 160 most powerful positions, (4%) and mothers in Russia, who hold a paltry five (3%). This is in stark contrast to the proportion of top leaders who are also fathers – more than 95% in China and Russia, and almost 80% in the USA.

Of the four sectors measured by the Motherhood+Public Power Index, universities and governments perform best in promoting leaders who are also mothers into the top jobs. This is due to the larger number of top American universities led by women who are also mothers, and to the stronger representation of women in the USA, Chinese, and Russian governments, relative to other sectors.

In contrast, the business and philanthropic sectors record the lowest representation of leaders who are also mothers. There are only five mothers among the top 80 CEOs and philanthropists in the USA, four in China and none in Russia.

The conclusion could not be clearer.  Mothers are dramatically underrepresented in the halls of power in the USA, China, and Russia, while fathers are dramatically overrepresented.

If the USA, China, and Russia had the same proportion of mothers leading their most powerful institutions as they do in the population (40%), we would expect to see 44 more mothers in the top jobs in the USA, 57 more in China and 59 in Russia.

Since the Motherhood + Public Power Index was launched in 2015, there has been no progress in the proportion of women with children among the most powerful 160 American leaders.

What can be done to accelerate the proportion of women who are also mothers into four out of every 10 leadership positions?

First, we need mothers in the USA, China, and Russia to celebrate and support the mothers already in powerful positions (see the list of the 32 most powerful mothers in the USA, China, and Russia below). We should all know their names.

Second, we all need to push for the changes that would make it easier for more mothers to pursue their professional careers to the levels of highest influence across government, business, academia and civil society.  Primarily this will involve a profound transformation in work norms so that workplaces deliver on the “deep and temporal flexibility” championed so powerfully by Anne-Marie Slaughter, Claudia Goldin, and Joan Williams.

Third, we need to build a truly global movement to put more mothers into seats of power. It’s not enough if the USA, China, and Russia increase the proportion of mothers in the top power positions. We need countries like India, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, Viet Nam, Ethiopia, and Egypt taking on motherhood and public power – measuring it, publicly reporting on it, and ultimately putting in place the policies and programs that will achieve a critical mass of mothers in positions of public influence everywhere.

The world can no longer afford to pay the high price it has been paying for the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions, and especially women with children. In the 21st century, we need the very best leaders who reflect the diversity of skills, experiences, and values in our population at the helms of our most powerful institutions.

Know their names: the 32 most powerful mothers in the USA, China, and Russia

USA (20)

  • Patty Murray, Senator, US Government
  • Elizabeth Warren, Senator, US Government
  • Cathy McMorris Rogers, US Congress
  • Nancy Pelosi, US Congress
  • Mary Barra, CEO, General Motors
  • Safra Catz, CEO, Oracle
  • Indra Nooyi, CEO, PepsiCo
  • Drew Gilpin Faust, President, Harvard University
  • Christina Paxson, President, Brown University
  • Amy Gutmann, President, University of Pennsylvania
  • Carol Quillen, President, Davidson College
  • Martha Pollack, President, Cornell University
  • Paula Johnson, President, Wellesley College
  • Elizabeth Howe Bradley, President, Vassar College
  • Michelle Johnson, Superintendent, United States Air Force Academy
  • Teresa Sullivan, President, University of Virginia
  • Debora Spar, President, Barnard College
  • Carol T Christ, Chancellor, University of California Berkeley
  • Lynn Schusterman, Schusterman Family Foundation
  • Diane von Furstenburg, Diller-von Furstenburg Family Foundation


  • Liu Yandong, Vice Premier, Peoples Republic of China and member of the Politburo
  • Sun Chunlan, Head, United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
  • Li Qingping, President, China CITIC Bank
  • Jian Huang, Chairman, Greenland Holdings Group
  • Wang Yingjun, Vice Chancellor, South China University of Technology
  • Zhang Xin, CEO, SOHO China
  • Chen Ailian, Wanfeng Auto Holding Group


  • Olga Golodets, Deputy PM, Russian Federation
  • Valentina Matvienko, Council Chair, Russian Federation
  • Galina Karelova, Deputy Chair, Russian Federation
  • Marina Borovskaya, Rector, Southern Federal University
  • Alevtina Chernikova, Rector, National University of Science and Technology

The Motherhood+Public Power Index is in support of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals and the UN Secretary-General’s Every Woman, Every Child movement. The Index uses the latest source data from the US Senate and Congress, the White House, the National Governors Association, the Forbes Global 2000, Forbes America’s Top Colleges, and Forbes America’s 50 Top Givers. Data on China and Russia Governments were drawn from official government websites and the QS World University Rankings 2016/17 was used for both China and Russia university leaders. The China Philanthropy Project at Harvard University and the Forbes “The World’s Billionaires 2017” provided details on China and Russia philanthropists.